Introduction of Energy Crisis in Pakistan:-
Energy resources are the backbone of social economic development of any country. It is essential for the production and making of goods and other things like cotton sheets which contribute a lot of revenue in the budget of Pakistan. Energy is essential for running machinery in industrial facilities, industrial devices, lightening the cities and running the system of transport.
Now a day there has been a massive improvement in the energy demand because of industrial development, increase in population, an increase in the manufacturing of households and enhancement of living standards. Therefore, the demand of power is rapidly growing in the form of electricity, diesel, petrol and coal. As we know the Pakistan’s energy issues are rising because the production of energy is insufficient to meet the growing energy demands of Pakistan, which causes power crisis or an energy crisis in Pakistan.
Overview of Pakistan’s electricity:-
Pakistan’s electricity generation facilities are not precisely working well, they even thought to be underdeveloped and inadequately maintained. The regions of Pakistan could be going to face the critical energy problems, because of the weakening economy and rising of the rapidly increasing electricity demand in the course of the prior 10 years. Additionally, we cannot see any considerable efforts to meet the demands of these energy problems. In addition, transmitting failures due to outdated facilities, electricity theft and a seasonal shortage of hydro power makes the situation even worse. Therefore, as a result, of strength shut down the load-shedding which is becoming very popular phenomena is increasing rapidly, contrary to load-shedding the prices of electricity also increasing rapidly.
Electricity Offered Per Capita:-
At the time of 2009-10, Electricity offer per capita experienced some sort of diminishing from 0.64% to 3% respectively. Pakistan’s daily energy demand is around 15,000 to 20,000 MW but unfortunately, it is able to maintain only 12,000 MW. Therefore, there is a shortfall of approximately 8000 MV on a daily basis. That shortfall is responsible for the economic destabilization of the regions of Pakistan.
Resources used for Energy Production:-
Pakistan’s energy demand is fulfilled by a mixture of gas, fat, Methane, fossil fuel and LPG by using a unique amount of stocks. The amount resources used for power production are as follows:
Usage of Gas is 43. 7 %, fat is 29. 0 %, fossil fuel is 10. 4 % and LPG is 1. 5%.
Resources of Electricity Production in Pakistan:-
In Pakistan electricity is produced by using two types of resources:
1. Non Renewable resources. (Limited and Expensive)
2. Renewable Resources. (Unlimited and cheap)
Non-renewable Resources (Fossil Fuels):-
These resources are not environmentally friendly. They are responsible for the rapid increase in Global Warming. These resources are found in the earth’s crust in the form of coal, crude oil and gas which are further distilled to obtain resources like Petrol, Diesel, coal, charcoal, paraffin oil, organic gases and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG).
Usage of Oil in Pakistan:-
In 2009-10, use of oil was 29% for the production of energy. Most of the crude oil have been imported to satisfy the energy demand. Oil is utilized in the fields of electrical power, marketplace, agriculture and household supports. Oil can be utilized in the technology of power generation, which is generating 64 % of power, 34% energy has been generated from Hydropower. According to the analysts, the amount of crude oil currently found in regions of Pakistan is equal to 303. 63 zillion barrels and we have been taking out roughly around twenty-four zillion crude oil every year.
Usage of Natural gas in Pakistan:-
In Pakistan the manufacturing of natural gas could be around 4, 048.76 zillion cubic feet daily, against the need of 3, 986.53 zillions. Natural gas is used in industries and commercially to generate buyer goods, to make a concrete floor, for the Production of fertilizers and for the productions of Pakistan’s electricity. It is also used as a CNG (Compressed Natural gas), which is utilized in the transport system. The usage of gas in power generation is 43.7%. LPG gas contributes around 0.7% to energy consumption in Pakistan. The study of the comparison of rates between Electricity, oil and gas shows us the reason of growing gas demand. Worldwide gas is counted among the very expensive resources but in Pakistan gas is the cheapest energy resource used in households, transportation and industry. Due to the less cost of a gas, the vehicles are rapidly converting from petrol to gas rapidly which is responsible for the increase in gas demand in Pakistan.
Uses of Coal in Pakistan:-
Pakistan’s fossil fuel supplies predicted to be more than 185 million tonnes of coal is present on the lands of Pakistan. Additionally, 175 million tonnes of coal are identified in the Thor coal-fields. Coal is largely used in the brick kiln and concrete floor market sectors. According to a rough idea, Pakistan’s coal reserves does not consider to be a high-quality coal. Following coal power plants are currently operating in Pakistan. Guddu power plant is the largest one which has a generation capacity of 1650 MW.
Renewable Energy Resources:-
Renewable energy sources are those which are created by Mother Nature. These resources are unlimited and eco-friendly. These resources are used as a cheaper source of Electricity generation. Nowadays the developed countries are using renewable energy sources for power generation these resources includes mineral water, sunlight, breeze, strong wind, tides and geothermal warmth.
Hydro Power Generation in Pakistan:-
Hydropower could be generated by using power turbines which convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Hydro Power contributes the huge amount of energy in the energy reservoirs of Pakistan. This is the very cheap source of electricity generation, which contributes only 34% to the whole power generation of Pakistan. At this time, we are gaining 6555 MW against the potential required 41000 to 45000 MW.
Following are the Hydro Power generation dams of Pakistan:
Its capacity is 3, 478 MW.
Ghazi Brotha Dam:-
Its capacity is 1450 MW.
Its capacity is 1, 000 MW.
Its capacity is 240 MW.
Its capacity is 184 MW.
Hydropower Projects of Pakistan:-
Its capacity is 4500 MW.
Its capacity is 740 MW.
Its capacity is 2400-3600 MW.
Its capacity is 5400 MW.
Its capacity is 3800 MW.
Wind Energy in Pakistan:-
Wind Energy used the strength of a blowing wind to move the blades attached to a generator by which mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. However, Pakistan has an ability to generate electricity by wind power from 10000 to 50000 MW. Electricity generation through wind turbines is at initial stages in Pakistan. In future wind turbines will be placed at Jhampir, Gharo, Keti Bandar and also Bin Qasim Karachi.
Solar Energy in Pakistan:-
Solar energy uses solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity. According to the analysts, Pakistan has a potential of generating electricity more than 100,000 MV with the help of solar energy of Pakistan. The projects of developing solar energy plants are underway in Kashmir, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. Even so, private electricity and solar panel suppliers are already selling solar panels photovoltaic water heaters, which show its already distribution and engagement in a local market. Alternate Electricity Development Panel (AEDB) is doing work with 20, 000 photovoltaic mineral water heaters in Gilgit-Baltistan. Now government bodies are trying to switch the generation of electricity from non-renewable to renewable energy sources like sunlight.
Farming of biomass/biodiesel in Pakistan:-
Biomass manufacturing companies utilizing waste with sugarcane, corn or other facilities to generate power. When waste decomposes, methane gas could be produced which came out of the pipes and then could be used for burning flames. Plant and solid wood may be burned up to produce electricity, just like fossil fuels, they could also be refined to make alcohols. Brazilian offers one of the greatest environmentally friendly energy sources via biomass/biodiesel energy generation on the globe, followed by the USA.
Energy Generation through Tidal Waves:-
Energy Generation through Tidal waves is one of a cheap way of electricity generation. This process includes the extraction of energy from the tidal waves which are disturbed by the gravity of the moon and converts it into electrical energy. Seaside tides are a source of fresh, cost-free and eco-friendly source of energy generation. Ideas are underway in Pakistan for the use of tidal energy, but unfortunately, until now no implementation have been observed yet.
Nuclear Energy in Pakistan:-
Nuclear energy is generated on the principal of fission reactions, by using Uranium in the nuclear reactors. In Pakistan Nuclear energy generation is very low, which is around 425 MW. However, these programs should be deployed to increase the energy production of Pakistan.
Following are the Pakistan’s Nuclear Electrical power Reactors
Chashma 1 PWR:-
The capacity is more than 200 MV
Chashma of PWR:-
The capacity is more than 200 MV.
Overall 425 MW
Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan:-
Pakistan is facing energy crisis due to the failure of previous governments to create new projects for the growing demand of electricity. Following are the major reasons for energy problems in Pakistan:
Spontaneously growing demand of electricity due to the following factors:-
a. Rapidly increase in population.
b. Improvement in the living standards of people.
c. Industrial development and expansion of houses.
d. Rapidly increase in transportation on a daily basis.
e. Lack of planning for the energy generation projects.
Pakistan has already developed many projects for the electricity needs but they are not enough to fulfil the whole electricity demand of Pakistan. Currently, Pakistan’s energy demand is 20,000 MW against the production of 11,500 MW, therefore, due to this imbalance presents in supply and demand, the problems of Pakistan are growing rapidly.
In Pakistan, the mixture of resources used for the electricity regeneration is also imbalanced as compared to other countries. Pakistan too much depends on the non-renewable energy sources for electricity production. The price of crude oil in international market changes on a daily basis, which creates the destabilization in the electricity generation expenditures of Pakistan. The increase in the prices of fuels affects everything and is purely responsible for every problem of Pakistan.
Pakistan’s energy production resources mixture should depend more on renewable energy sources like Hydropower, Coal, wind and solar energy. Non-utilization of these natural resources is the one of a soul reason of the problems of Pakistan.