In this article we will discuss the history of Alexander ||| of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a great king of Macedonia. All of his battles and strategies, his suppression of the rebellion, how he united the Greece and became the lord of Asia. At the end, we will discuss the famous quotes of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great:-
Alexander of Macedon, born in 356 B.C in Macedonia and died on 13 June, 323 B.C in Babylon. He reigned from 336 to 323 B.C. This Great general crushed the rebellion and united the whole Greece. He conquered the great Persian Empire, Marched on India with Macedonians, He laid the foundations for the united Asia and Europe and the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms. During his lifetime, he became the subject of the legendary stories. He became the most inspiring personality of the youth of all time.
Alexander of Macedonia was born in 356 B.C at Pella in Macedonia. He was the son of Philip II and Olympias. Aristotle taught him from the age of 13 to 16, who created interest inside him for the study of philosophy, treatments, and scientific study. But soon he went too far from his teacher thinking and became the legendary hero. During the Philip attack on Byzantium, he was left in charge. During this, he defeated the Maedi, The Thracian people. After a couple of years, he commanded the left wing of the Philips army at the Battle of Chaeronea, during the war Philip defeated the allied Greek states. After one year later Philip divorced Olympias, In addition, after the quarrel at a feast on the new marriage of his father. Alexander with his mother fled to Epirus. After some time, he and his father again became one but his position as an heir to the throne was not stable.
In 336 after Philip’s murder, Alexander was selected by the army and got the throne without any opposition. He immediately executed all the possible enemies of Philips which could be behind the assassination also he executed anyone which defied him. Then, he marched south, restored a wavering Thessaly, and at an assembly of the Greek League Corinth was appointed generalissimo for that forthcoming invasion associated with Asia, which was already planned, organized and initiated by his father. At the time of his return to Macedonia, through the way of Delphi (where Pythian priestess acknowledged him “invincible”), He marched into Thrace during the spring of 335. He forced through Shipka Pass and also crushed the Triballi. While rotating west, he next defeated and shattered a coalition associated with Illyrians who experienced invaded Macedonia.
Meanwhile, a rumor of his death was spread like fire which arises a revolt associated with Theban democrats. Other Greek states under his rule also supported Thebes and the Athenians. Alexander marched 240 miles in 14 days from Pelion to Thebes. Due to the refuse of the surrender from the Thebans, he brought the city to the ground sparing only temples. During this 6000 men were killed and all the rest of them were sold as a prisoner. Due to the massacre in Thebes, all the remaining states became afraid to arouse their voices against Alexander due to which he dealt with Athens leniently. He left the Macedonian garrisons in Corinth, Chalcis, along with the Cadmea (Thebes Citadel).
Initialization of the Invasion of Persian Empire:-
From the beginning, Alexander’s eyes were set for the invasion of the great Persian empire. Moreover, Persia was a very wealthy empire and he needed the wealth of Persia to maintain the army built by his father. The successful campaign of Agesilaus of Sparta had shown that the Persian Empire was not invincible, these campaigns shown its vulnerability. He was expecting to defeat any Persian army with a heavy cavalry forced, He crossed the Dardanelles in spring 334 B, left Antipater as his deputy in Europe with 13,000 warriors. Alexander the Great himself commanded 5,000 cavalry and 30,000 warriors. This army was remarkable for his combination of balance, discipline and the combination of arms. His second in command was Permenio who was the most trusted and reliable general and advisor of his father. The army seems to contain a lot of surveyors, engineers, architects, scientists, mathematicians, court officials, and historians.
When he visits the Ilium, He faced his very first Persian army at the Granicus River, which was located near the Sea of Marmara. The Persians were almost succeeded to kill him in melee across the river by tempting him. But due to the breaking of Persian line, he got a huge victory. The sold Greek mercenaries at the hand of Darius were massacred badly. But 2,000 survivors which were taken as prisoners sent to Macedonia. This victory was of a great importance to open the Asian Minor for the Macedonians. Due to this, most of the cities hastily have to open their gates for Macedonians. Alexander occupied all the coastal cities to defeat the Persians on the ground. In Caria, Halicarnassus was refused and resisted to him due to which, he destroyed that city.
The invasion of Asian Minor and the Battle of Issus:-
Alexander conquered the western Asia Minor in 334 to 333 B.C, He completely subdivided the hill tribes of Lycia and Pisidia. In spring 333 B.C he advanced along Perga through the coastal road. In Phrygia at Gordium, he cut’s the Gordian knot. According to the legends, it could only be cut by the man, which could rule the whole Asia. From the Gordium, he went to Ancyra and passed through the Cappadocia. During this time period, he was held by the fever in Cilicia.
In the meantime, Darius with his huge army was marching towards him. Due to the defeat of the Darius, Alexander found Darius drawn up along the Pinarus River. He won one of his great war on this river. Due to the heavy struggle of his army, the Persians army routed from the ground and Darius fled and slipped away from the hand of the Alexander at that time.
Battle of Gaugamela and the Conquest of Mediterranean Coast including Egypt:-
From Issus he marched southern region in Syria and Phoenicia, his goal was to defeat the Persian fleet into an effective combat by isolating them from their important cities. These Phoenician cities Marathus and Aradus conquered easily, in addition, Parmenio seemed to be sent ahead in order to conquer Damascus and rich rear end, including Darius’s treasure. In response to the Darius peace letter he arrogantly demanded Darius unconditioned surrender to him as lord of Asia. After, conquering Byblos and Sidon Alexander faced serious resistance from Tyre. Where he was refused from entering the city. Due to this he used all the tactics of his siege and this siege coasted him seven months, it is also considered the most important military achievement of his life. That’s why it was celebrated with great joy and the sale of women into slavery.
He left Parmenio in Syria and moved towards South without any resistance until he reached Gaza. There he faced resistance which cost him two months. He also received a serious shoulder wound. After this he moved to Jerusalem, he reached Egypt in November 332 where people welcomed him and Persian satrap wisely surrendered. At the western arm of the river Nile, he founded the city of Alexandria. In springtime 331 he came back towards Tyre, equipped a new Macedonian satrap intended for Syria, in addition to able to progress in Mesopotamia. Their conquest of Egypt acquired completed his hold over the Mediterranean Sea shore.
In early July 331, he was on Thapsacus towards the Euphrates. Rather then, acquiring the easy way down towards the river in order to move Babylon, he made over northern Mesopotamia towards the particular Tigris, Darius, studying of the shift through a great progress power routed within Mazaeus on the Euphrates bridging, marched the Tigris to battle him. This Great War was fought on October thirty-one in the land of Gaugamela between Nineveh and Arbela. In this land, the two armies went face to face. When the battle started, Alexander with his army of 40,000 warrior cuts through the heart of the Darius army of 240,000 warriors. He pursued the particular beaten Persian army for 30 miles to Arbela, yet Darius fled with his Bactrian cavalry and Greek mercenaries.
He has now conquered Babylon city and the state of Mazaeus, who surrendered this, seemed to be proved and became a satrap as well as a new Macedonian troop commander, also awarded with a gold coin. In Egypt, the local priesthood seemed to be prompted. Susa, the capital surrendered, releasing huge items of value more than 50, 000 silver skill sets, Here Alexander took care of Darius family with great care.
Crushing the several hill groups of the Auxins, he now he marched towards the Zagros in Persia, productively turning the particular Cross of the Local Gates, held because of the satrap Ariobarzanes, he entered Persepolis then Pasargadae. From Persepolis, he ceremonially burned down the great structure of Xerxes, like a symbol how the Panhellenic struggle of reprisal seemed to be on a finish. In the spring of 330, he marched north to India and conquered his capital. At this stage, he sent the Greek allies at home. From there to the invasion of India he started a purely personal war. Prior to continuous his hunt for Darius, who retreated towards Bactria, he collected the Persian gold and treasure gave to the Harpalus for safe keeping as a chief treasure.
In the middle of the summer of 330, he marched out for eastern provinces at excessive speed by way of Rhagae (modern Rayy, near Tehran) and also the Caspian Gates, where he found that Bessus, the satrap of Bactria. Near Shahrud, the Darius was stabbed by one of his general and he left him to die. Alexander performed his funeral with due honor within the royal tombs in Persepolis.
Alexander’s Invasion of India:-
In the early summer of 327 B.C he left from Bactria with a strengthened and organized army under his command. This army also includes many reliable services, including muleteers, camels, medical corps, peddlers, entertainers, women of all ages. While he was crossing through the Hindu Kush, through Bamiyan then the Ghorband Vly, he split his forces into two wings. The first wing was with supplies under the command of Hephaestion and Perdiccas, both cavalry commanders, had been dispatched through the Khyber pass, although he himself leads the rest of the army, include the siege weapons, through the mountains towards the north.
He was advancing towards the north, conquering any area came into his possession, His storming through Swat and Gandhara was very noticeable. Throughout spring 326, traversing from Indus towards Attock, he entered Taxila, whose ruler supplied elephants and troops in substitution for help to take on Porus, which was the ruling king of the land between Jhelum and Chenab. On the left bank of Hyde pass, Alexander fought his last greatest war known as the battle of Hyde pass. On the occasion of victory, he founded two cities Alexandria Nicaea (to celebrate the great victory) and also Bucephala (named after his beloved horse Bucephalus, which was fallen during the war). The Legend says after the defeat of Porus, he was brought to Alexander in chains. Alexander said to Porus “How should I treat you”. Porous replied, “You should treat me as king treats the defeated king “. Due to the bravery of Porus, he was spared by Alexander and both became Allies.
There is not much known about how much he recognized Asia beyond the Hyphasis (Bias River). There is no doubt he wanted to explore and conquered further lands. But due to the mutiny of his army at Hyphasis, he agreed to turn back. Before returning, he Erected Altars of the 12 Olympian gods at the Hyphasis (Bias River), then he constructed 1,000 ships on the Hyde pass River. During his return Alexander selected the way of Gedrosia which had proved his worst mistake. During his journey to Gedrosia his people faced waterless desert along with the shortage of food which caused a huge suffering, No one knows during his journey how many men, women and children were dying due to the sufferings of Gedrosia.
Famous Quotes by Alexander the Great:-
1. “Heaven cannot brook two suns, nor earth two masters”
2. “I do not steal victory.”
“Replay to the suggestion by Parmenion, before the battle of Gaugamela.”
3. “So would I, if I were Parmenion.”
“Replay to the suggestion by Parmenion, after the battle of Issus.”
4. “There is nothing impossible to him who will try.”
“On taking charge of an attack on a fortress, in Pushing to the Front, or, Success under Difficulties”
5. “Sex and sleep alone make me conscious that I am mortal.”
6. “I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion.”
7. “I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well.”
8. “I had rather excel others in the knowledge of what is excellent, than in the extent of my power and dominion.”
9. “Remember upon the conduct of each depend the fate of all.”
10. “A tomb now suffices him for whom the whole world was not sufficient”
11. On hearing that there are infinite worlds Alexander wept and said “Is it not worthy of tears, that, when the number of worlds is infinite, we have not yet become lords of a single one?”
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